sciencesoup:

Why is there any Matter left in the Universe?
Every particle in existence has an antiparticle equivalent, which is almost identical except it carries the opposite electric charge. Matter is composed of normal particles and antimatter is composed of antiparticles—for example, while a proton and an electron form an ordinary hydrogen atom, an antiproton and a positron form an antihydrogen atom. Antimatter is created all the time in high-energy collisions, like when cosmic rays impact Earth’s atmosphere, but it immediately disappears because when matter and antimatter collide, they annihilate in a flash of pure energy. This makes it difficult to study experimentally, and neither can we find any evidence of a significant concentration of antimatter in the wider universe. The universe we know is dominated by ordinary matter—it makes up every person and planet and star—and yet if matter and antimatter were created equally at the birth of the universe, where has all the antimatter gone? This asymmetry is a perplexing question in physics, and several theories have been proposed to explain it. Perhaps nature favours matter reactions over antimatter ones; or perhaps matter and antimatter particles decay differently; or perhaps there are far flung regions composed primarily of antimatter, but they’re just beyond our visible universe. Researchers are currently trying to determine if such regions exist by studying colliding superclusters for high-energy signatures of annihilation, and by studying decay patterns in quarks.
(Image Credit: 1, 2)

sciencesoup:

Why is there any Matter left in the Universe?

Every particle in existence has an antiparticle equivalent, which is almost identical except it carries the opposite electric charge. Matter is composed of normal particles and antimatter is composed of antiparticles—for example, while a proton and an electron form an ordinary hydrogen atom, an antiproton and a positron form an antihydrogen atom. Antimatter is created all the time in high-energy collisions, like when cosmic rays impact Earth’s atmosphere, but it immediately disappears because when matter and antimatter collide, they annihilate in a flash of pure energy. This makes it difficult to study experimentally, and neither can we find any evidence of a significant concentration of antimatter in the wider universe. The universe we know is dominated by ordinary matter—it makes up every person and planet and star—and yet if matter and antimatter were created equally at the birth of the universe, where has all the antimatter gone? This asymmetry is a perplexing question in physics, and several theories have been proposed to explain it. Perhaps nature favours matter reactions over antimatter ones; or perhaps matter and antimatter particles decay differently; or perhaps there are far flung regions composed primarily of antimatter, but they’re just beyond our visible universe. Researchers are currently trying to determine if such regions exist by studying colliding superclusters for high-energy signatures of annihilation, and by studying decay patterns in quarks.

(Image Credit: 1, 2)

ikenbot:

The Chaos Equations © John Harris

ikenbot:

The Chaos Equations © John Harris

Theresa Klein talks about Achilles, the first machine to move in a biologically accurate way.

“Our robot, named Achilles, is the first to walk in a biologically accurate way. That means it doesn’t just move like a person, but also sends commands to the legs like the human nervous system does.

Each leg has eight muscles—Kevlar straps attached to a motor on one end and to the plastic skeleton on the other. As the motor turns, it pulls the strap, mimicking the way our muscles contract. Some of Achilles’ muscles extend from the hip or thigh to the lower leg so they can project forces all the way down the limb. This allows us to put most of the motors in the hips and thighs. Placing them up high keeps the lower leg light, so that it can swing quickly like a human’s lower leg.

In people, neurons in the spinal column send out rhythmic signals that control our legs. It’s like a metronome, and sensory feedback from the legs alters the pace. Your brain can step in to make corrections, but it doesn’t explicitly control every muscle, which is essentially why you can walk without thinking about it. For our robot, a computer program running off an external PC controls movement in a similar way. With each step, the computer sends a signal to flex one hip muscle and extend the other. The computer changes the timing of those signals based on feedback from the legs’ load and angle sensors. A similar control system handles the lower muscles.

Modeling human movement has applications outside of robotics. It could also help us understand how people recover after spinal-cord injuries, for example. But our robot is still a very simplified model—it has no torso and can’t handle complex terrain. Initially, we also had a problem with its feet slipping. We thought about different types of rubber to give its feet more grip but eventually realized a solution already exists. Now, the robot wears a pair of Keds.”

Theresa Klein talks about Achilles, the first machine to move in a biologically accurate way.

“Our robot, named Achilles, is the first to walk in a biologically accurate way. That means it doesn’t just move like a person, but also sends commands to the legs like the human nervous system does.

Each leg has eight muscles—Kevlar straps attached to a motor on one end and to the plastic skeleton on the other. As the motor turns, it pulls the strap, mimicking the way our muscles contract. Some of Achilles’ muscles extend from the hip or thigh to the lower leg so they can project forces all the way down the limb. This allows us to put most of the motors in the hips and thighs. Placing them up high keeps the lower leg light, so that it can swing quickly like a human’s lower leg.

In people, neurons in the spinal column send out rhythmic signals that control our legs. It’s like a metronome, and sensory feedback from the legs alters the pace. Your brain can step in to make corrections, but it doesn’t explicitly control every muscle, which is essentially why you can walk without thinking about it. For our robot, a computer program running off an external PC controls movement in a similar way. With each step, the computer sends a signal to flex one hip muscle and extend the other. The computer changes the timing of those signals based on feedback from the legs’ load and angle sensors. A similar control system handles the lower muscles.

Modeling human movement has applications outside of robotics. It could also help us understand how people recover after spinal-cord injuries, for example. But our robot is still a very simplified model—it has no torso and can’t handle complex terrain. Initially, we also had a problem with its feet slipping. We thought about different types of rubber to give its feet more grip but eventually realized a solution already exists. Now, the robot wears a pair of Keds.”

cozydark:

Mass of Dark Matter Revealed by Precise Measurements of the Galaxy |
A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), has succeeded in precisely determining the astronomical yardstick for the Galaxy based upon the precise distance measurements with VERA from NAOJ and other advanced radio telescopes. The new findings are that the distance from the sun to the Galactic center is 26,100 light-years, and that the Galactic rotation velocity in the solar system is 240km/s.
The Galactic rotation velocity from this research is higher than that of previously known (220km/s). This results in the conclusion that the mass of the Galaxy, especially that of dark matter, is about 20% larger than what has been previously considered.
A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma(NAOJ) has reached the following two conclusions:
(1) The distance from the solar system to the galactic center is approximately 26,100 light years (*1);
(2) The galactic rotation velocity in the solar system (V0) (*2) is approximately 240km/s.
These conclusions are drawn based upon the precise distances to celestial objects in the Galaxy and their proper motions, a technical term to describe the stars’ change in position. The International Astronomical Union has endorsed V0=220km/s; this value was announced in 1986. When the V0 value derived from this research is applied, the mass of dark matter in the galaxy is about 20% larger than what has been considered so far.
VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) (*3) and other VLBI arrays in the world were utilized to get most of the precise distances to about 50 objects and the data on their proper motions. At VERA, triangulation (*4) was used to precisely measure the distances to the objects and their proper motions. The research team plans to further increase the number for objects of which they measure the precise distances and proper motions. In addition, the team has hopes to deepen understanding of the Galaxy in which we all live by creating a 3D Galaxy map, and then determine motions and mass distribution in the Galaxy based upon the 3D map. continue reading cozydark:

Mass of Dark Matter Revealed by Precise Measurements of the Galaxy |
A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), has succeeded in precisely determining the astronomical yardstick for the Galaxy based upon the precise distance measurements with VERA from NAOJ and other advanced radio telescopes. The new findings are that the distance from the sun to the Galactic center is 26,100 light-years, and that the Galactic rotation velocity in the solar system is 240km/s.
The Galactic rotation velocity from this research is higher than that of previously known (220km/s). This results in the conclusion that the mass of the Galaxy, especially that of dark matter, is about 20% larger than what has been previously considered.
A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma(NAOJ) has reached the following two conclusions:
(1) The distance from the solar system to the galactic center is approximately 26,100 light years (*1);
(2) The galactic rotation velocity in the solar system (V0) (*2) is approximately 240km/s.
These conclusions are drawn based upon the precise distances to celestial objects in the Galaxy and their proper motions, a technical term to describe the stars’ change in position. The International Astronomical Union has endorsed V0=220km/s; this value was announced in 1986. When the V0 value derived from this research is applied, the mass of dark matter in the galaxy is about 20% larger than what has been considered so far.
VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) (*3) and other VLBI arrays in the world were utilized to get most of the precise distances to about 50 objects and the data on their proper motions. At VERA, triangulation (*4) was used to precisely measure the distances to the objects and their proper motions. The research team plans to further increase the number for objects of which they measure the precise distances and proper motions. In addition, the team has hopes to deepen understanding of the Galaxy in which we all live by creating a 3D Galaxy map, and then determine motions and mass distribution in the Galaxy based upon the 3D map. continue reading cozydark:

Mass of Dark Matter Revealed by Precise Measurements of the Galaxy |
A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), has succeeded in precisely determining the astronomical yardstick for the Galaxy based upon the precise distance measurements with VERA from NAOJ and other advanced radio telescopes. The new findings are that the distance from the sun to the Galactic center is 26,100 light-years, and that the Galactic rotation velocity in the solar system is 240km/s.
The Galactic rotation velocity from this research is higher than that of previously known (220km/s). This results in the conclusion that the mass of the Galaxy, especially that of dark matter, is about 20% larger than what has been previously considered.
A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma(NAOJ) has reached the following two conclusions:
(1) The distance from the solar system to the galactic center is approximately 26,100 light years (*1);
(2) The galactic rotation velocity in the solar system (V0) (*2) is approximately 240km/s.
These conclusions are drawn based upon the precise distances to celestial objects in the Galaxy and their proper motions, a technical term to describe the stars’ change in position. The International Astronomical Union has endorsed V0=220km/s; this value was announced in 1986. When the V0 value derived from this research is applied, the mass of dark matter in the galaxy is about 20% larger than what has been considered so far.
VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) (*3) and other VLBI arrays in the world were utilized to get most of the precise distances to about 50 objects and the data on their proper motions. At VERA, triangulation (*4) was used to precisely measure the distances to the objects and their proper motions. The research team plans to further increase the number for objects of which they measure the precise distances and proper motions. In addition, the team has hopes to deepen understanding of the Galaxy in which we all live by creating a 3D Galaxy map, and then determine motions and mass distribution in the Galaxy based upon the 3D map. continue reading cozydark:

Mass of Dark Matter Revealed by Precise Measurements of the Galaxy |
A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), has succeeded in precisely determining the astronomical yardstick for the Galaxy based upon the precise distance measurements with VERA from NAOJ and other advanced radio telescopes. The new findings are that the distance from the sun to the Galactic center is 26,100 light-years, and that the Galactic rotation velocity in the solar system is 240km/s.
The Galactic rotation velocity from this research is higher than that of previously known (220km/s). This results in the conclusion that the mass of the Galaxy, especially that of dark matter, is about 20% larger than what has been previously considered.
A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma(NAOJ) has reached the following two conclusions:
(1) The distance from the solar system to the galactic center is approximately 26,100 light years (*1);
(2) The galactic rotation velocity in the solar system (V0) (*2) is approximately 240km/s.
These conclusions are drawn based upon the precise distances to celestial objects in the Galaxy and their proper motions, a technical term to describe the stars’ change in position. The International Astronomical Union has endorsed V0=220km/s; this value was announced in 1986. When the V0 value derived from this research is applied, the mass of dark matter in the galaxy is about 20% larger than what has been considered so far.
VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) (*3) and other VLBI arrays in the world were utilized to get most of the precise distances to about 50 objects and the data on their proper motions. At VERA, triangulation (*4) was used to precisely measure the distances to the objects and their proper motions. The research team plans to further increase the number for objects of which they measure the precise distances and proper motions. In addition, the team has hopes to deepen understanding of the Galaxy in which we all live by creating a 3D Galaxy map, and then determine motions and mass distribution in the Galaxy based upon the 3D map. continue reading cozydark:

Mass of Dark Matter Revealed by Precise Measurements of the Galaxy |
A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), has succeeded in precisely determining the astronomical yardstick for the Galaxy based upon the precise distance measurements with VERA from NAOJ and other advanced radio telescopes. The new findings are that the distance from the sun to the Galactic center is 26,100 light-years, and that the Galactic rotation velocity in the solar system is 240km/s.
The Galactic rotation velocity from this research is higher than that of previously known (220km/s). This results in the conclusion that the mass of the Galaxy, especially that of dark matter, is about 20% larger than what has been previously considered.
A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma(NAOJ) has reached the following two conclusions:
(1) The distance from the solar system to the galactic center is approximately 26,100 light years (*1);
(2) The galactic rotation velocity in the solar system (V0) (*2) is approximately 240km/s.
These conclusions are drawn based upon the precise distances to celestial objects in the Galaxy and their proper motions, a technical term to describe the stars’ change in position. The International Astronomical Union has endorsed V0=220km/s; this value was announced in 1986. When the V0 value derived from this research is applied, the mass of dark matter in the galaxy is about 20% larger than what has been considered so far.
VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) (*3) and other VLBI arrays in the world were utilized to get most of the precise distances to about 50 objects and the data on their proper motions. At VERA, triangulation (*4) was used to precisely measure the distances to the objects and their proper motions. The research team plans to further increase the number for objects of which they measure the precise distances and proper motions. In addition, the team has hopes to deepen understanding of the Galaxy in which we all live by creating a 3D Galaxy map, and then determine motions and mass distribution in the Galaxy based upon the 3D map. continue reading

cozydark:

Mass of Dark Matter Revealed by Precise Measurements of the Galaxy |

A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), has succeeded in precisely determining the astronomical yardstick for the Galaxy based upon the precise distance measurements with VERA from NAOJ and other advanced radio telescopes. The new findings are that the distance from the sun to the Galactic center is 26,100 light-years, and that the Galactic rotation velocity in the solar system is 240km/s.

The Galactic rotation velocity from this research is higher than that of previously known (220km/s). This results in the conclusion that the mass of the Galaxy, especially that of dark matter, is about 20% larger than what has been previously considered.

A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma(NAOJ) has reached the following two conclusions:

(1) The distance from the solar system to the galactic center is approximately 26,100 light years (*1);

(2) The galactic rotation velocity in the solar system (V0) (*2) is approximately 240km/s.

These conclusions are drawn based upon the precise distances to celestial objects in the Galaxy and their proper motions, a technical term to describe the stars’ change in position. The International Astronomical Union has endorsed V0=220km/s; this value was announced in 1986. When the V0 value derived from this research is applied, the mass of dark matter in the galaxy is about 20% larger than what has been considered so far.

VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) (*3) and other VLBI arrays in the world were utilized to get most of the precise distances to about 50 objects and the data on their proper motions. At VERA, triangulation (*4) was used to precisely measure the distances to the objects and their proper motions. The research team plans to further increase the number for objects of which they measure the precise distances and proper motions. In addition, the team has hopes to deepen understanding of the Galaxy in which we all live by creating a 3D Galaxy map, and then determine motions and mass distribution in the Galaxy based upon the 3D map. continue reading

cozydark:

Mass of Dark Matter Revealed by Precise Measurements of the Galaxy |
A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), has succeeded in precisely determining the astronomical yardstick for the Galaxy based upon the precise distance measurements with VERA from NAOJ and other advanced radio telescopes. The new findings are that the distance from the sun to the Galactic center is 26,100 light-years, and that the Galactic rotation velocity in the solar system is 240km/s.
The Galactic rotation velocity from this research is higher than that of previously known (220km/s). This results in the conclusion that the mass of the Galaxy, especially that of dark matter, is about 20% larger than what has been previously considered.
A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma(NAOJ) has reached the following two conclusions:
(1) The distance from the solar system to the galactic center is approximately 26,100 light years (*1);
(2) The galactic rotation velocity in the solar system (V0) (*2) is approximately 240km/s.
These conclusions are drawn based upon the precise distances to celestial objects in the Galaxy and their proper motions, a technical term to describe the stars’ change in position. The International Astronomical Union has endorsed V0=220km/s; this value was announced in 1986. When the V0 value derived from this research is applied, the mass of dark matter in the galaxy is about 20% larger than what has been considered so far.
VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) (*3) and other VLBI arrays in the world were utilized to get most of the precise distances to about 50 objects and the data on their proper motions. At VERA, triangulation (*4) was used to precisely measure the distances to the objects and their proper motions. The research team plans to further increase the number for objects of which they measure the precise distances and proper motions. In addition, the team has hopes to deepen understanding of the Galaxy in which we all live by creating a 3D Galaxy map, and then determine motions and mass distribution in the Galaxy based upon the 3D map. continue reading cozydark:

Mass of Dark Matter Revealed by Precise Measurements of the Galaxy |
A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), has succeeded in precisely determining the astronomical yardstick for the Galaxy based upon the precise distance measurements with VERA from NAOJ and other advanced radio telescopes. The new findings are that the distance from the sun to the Galactic center is 26,100 light-years, and that the Galactic rotation velocity in the solar system is 240km/s.
The Galactic rotation velocity from this research is higher than that of previously known (220km/s). This results in the conclusion that the mass of the Galaxy, especially that of dark matter, is about 20% larger than what has been previously considered.
A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma(NAOJ) has reached the following two conclusions:
(1) The distance from the solar system to the galactic center is approximately 26,100 light years (*1);
(2) The galactic rotation velocity in the solar system (V0) (*2) is approximately 240km/s.
These conclusions are drawn based upon the precise distances to celestial objects in the Galaxy and their proper motions, a technical term to describe the stars’ change in position. The International Astronomical Union has endorsed V0=220km/s; this value was announced in 1986. When the V0 value derived from this research is applied, the mass of dark matter in the galaxy is about 20% larger than what has been considered so far.
VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) (*3) and other VLBI arrays in the world were utilized to get most of the precise distances to about 50 objects and the data on their proper motions. At VERA, triangulation (*4) was used to precisely measure the distances to the objects and their proper motions. The research team plans to further increase the number for objects of which they measure the precise distances and proper motions. In addition, the team has hopes to deepen understanding of the Galaxy in which we all live by creating a 3D Galaxy map, and then determine motions and mass distribution in the Galaxy based upon the 3D map. continue reading cozydark:

Mass of Dark Matter Revealed by Precise Measurements of the Galaxy |
A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), has succeeded in precisely determining the astronomical yardstick for the Galaxy based upon the precise distance measurements with VERA from NAOJ and other advanced radio telescopes. The new findings are that the distance from the sun to the Galactic center is 26,100 light-years, and that the Galactic rotation velocity in the solar system is 240km/s.
The Galactic rotation velocity from this research is higher than that of previously known (220km/s). This results in the conclusion that the mass of the Galaxy, especially that of dark matter, is about 20% larger than what has been previously considered.
A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma(NAOJ) has reached the following two conclusions:
(1) The distance from the solar system to the galactic center is approximately 26,100 light years (*1);
(2) The galactic rotation velocity in the solar system (V0) (*2) is approximately 240km/s.
These conclusions are drawn based upon the precise distances to celestial objects in the Galaxy and their proper motions, a technical term to describe the stars’ change in position. The International Astronomical Union has endorsed V0=220km/s; this value was announced in 1986. When the V0 value derived from this research is applied, the mass of dark matter in the galaxy is about 20% larger than what has been considered so far.
VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) (*3) and other VLBI arrays in the world were utilized to get most of the precise distances to about 50 objects and the data on their proper motions. At VERA, triangulation (*4) was used to precisely measure the distances to the objects and their proper motions. The research team plans to further increase the number for objects of which they measure the precise distances and proper motions. In addition, the team has hopes to deepen understanding of the Galaxy in which we all live by creating a 3D Galaxy map, and then determine motions and mass distribution in the Galaxy based upon the 3D map. continue reading cozydark:

Mass of Dark Matter Revealed by Precise Measurements of the Galaxy |
A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), has succeeded in precisely determining the astronomical yardstick for the Galaxy based upon the precise distance measurements with VERA from NAOJ and other advanced radio telescopes. The new findings are that the distance from the sun to the Galactic center is 26,100 light-years, and that the Galactic rotation velocity in the solar system is 240km/s.
The Galactic rotation velocity from this research is higher than that of previously known (220km/s). This results in the conclusion that the mass of the Galaxy, especially that of dark matter, is about 20% larger than what has been previously considered.
A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma(NAOJ) has reached the following two conclusions:
(1) The distance from the solar system to the galactic center is approximately 26,100 light years (*1);
(2) The galactic rotation velocity in the solar system (V0) (*2) is approximately 240km/s.
These conclusions are drawn based upon the precise distances to celestial objects in the Galaxy and their proper motions, a technical term to describe the stars’ change in position. The International Astronomical Union has endorsed V0=220km/s; this value was announced in 1986. When the V0 value derived from this research is applied, the mass of dark matter in the galaxy is about 20% larger than what has been considered so far.
VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) (*3) and other VLBI arrays in the world were utilized to get most of the precise distances to about 50 objects and the data on their proper motions. At VERA, triangulation (*4) was used to precisely measure the distances to the objects and their proper motions. The research team plans to further increase the number for objects of which they measure the precise distances and proper motions. In addition, the team has hopes to deepen understanding of the Galaxy in which we all live by creating a 3D Galaxy map, and then determine motions and mass distribution in the Galaxy based upon the 3D map. continue reading cozydark:

Mass of Dark Matter Revealed by Precise Measurements of the Galaxy |
A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), has succeeded in precisely determining the astronomical yardstick for the Galaxy based upon the precise distance measurements with VERA from NAOJ and other advanced radio telescopes. The new findings are that the distance from the sun to the Galactic center is 26,100 light-years, and that the Galactic rotation velocity in the solar system is 240km/s.
The Galactic rotation velocity from this research is higher than that of previously known (220km/s). This results in the conclusion that the mass of the Galaxy, especially that of dark matter, is about 20% larger than what has been previously considered.
A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma(NAOJ) has reached the following two conclusions:
(1) The distance from the solar system to the galactic center is approximately 26,100 light years (*1);
(2) The galactic rotation velocity in the solar system (V0) (*2) is approximately 240km/s.
These conclusions are drawn based upon the precise distances to celestial objects in the Galaxy and their proper motions, a technical term to describe the stars’ change in position. The International Astronomical Union has endorsed V0=220km/s; this value was announced in 1986. When the V0 value derived from this research is applied, the mass of dark matter in the galaxy is about 20% larger than what has been considered so far.
VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) (*3) and other VLBI arrays in the world were utilized to get most of the precise distances to about 50 objects and the data on their proper motions. At VERA, triangulation (*4) was used to precisely measure the distances to the objects and their proper motions. The research team plans to further increase the number for objects of which they measure the precise distances and proper motions. In addition, the team has hopes to deepen understanding of the Galaxy in which we all live by creating a 3D Galaxy map, and then determine motions and mass distribution in the Galaxy based upon the 3D map. continue reading

cozydark:

Mass of Dark Matter Revealed by Precise Measurements of the Galaxy |

A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), has succeeded in precisely determining the astronomical yardstick for the Galaxy based upon the precise distance measurements with VERA from NAOJ and other advanced radio telescopes. The new findings are that the distance from the sun to the Galactic center is 26,100 light-years, and that the Galactic rotation velocity in the solar system is 240km/s.

The Galactic rotation velocity from this research is higher than that of previously known (220km/s). This results in the conclusion that the mass of the Galaxy, especially that of dark matter, is about 20% larger than what has been previously considered.

A research team, led by Associate Professor Mareki Honma(NAOJ) has reached the following two conclusions:

(1) The distance from the solar system to the galactic center is approximately 26,100 light years (*1);

(2) The galactic rotation velocity in the solar system (V0) (*2) is approximately 240km/s.

These conclusions are drawn based upon the precise distances to celestial objects in the Galaxy and their proper motions, a technical term to describe the stars’ change in position. The International Astronomical Union has endorsed V0=220km/s; this value was announced in 1986. When the V0 value derived from this research is applied, the mass of dark matter in the galaxy is about 20% larger than what has been considered so far.

VERA (VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry) (*3) and other VLBI arrays in the world were utilized to get most of the precise distances to about 50 objects and the data on their proper motions. At VERA, triangulation (*4) was used to precisely measure the distances to the objects and their proper motions. The research team plans to further increase the number for objects of which they measure the precise distances and proper motions. In addition, the team has hopes to deepen understanding of the Galaxy in which we all live by creating a 3D Galaxy map, and then determine motions and mass distribution in the Galaxy based upon the 3D map. continue reading

8bitfuture:

KickStarter campaign hopes to fund an anti-cancer virus.

The campaign is hoping to raise US$1,000,000 to fund the development of potential treatment for neuroendocrine tumours, or NET - the same cancer that killed Steve Jobs.

The potential therapy, a cancer-busting virus, is currently sitting in a freezer in Sweden – but it can’t be tested for lack of just £2million.

Without the money, the research will cease and the virus will be thrown away, placing in jeopardy a therapy that could significantly extend the lives of thousands of NET cancer sufferers.

Big business won’t stump up the £2million needed to fund the first stage of clinical trials, because there is no money to be made. The Swedish research team, led by Prof Magnus Essand from Uppsala University, were so keen to collaborate and share the findings they published the research.

But now it is out in the public domain it can’t be protected by the patent that would have enabled business backers to make a profit.

We want to raise enough money to enable Prof Essand and his team to conduct clinical trials on their groundbreaking cancer eating virus. £1 million will enable him to do it - £2 million will enable him to do it really well.

Check out the campaign here.

  1. Camera: Nikon D80
  2. Aperture: f/10
  3. Exposure: 1/160th
  4. Focal Length: 50mm

8bitfuture:

KickStarter campaign hopes to fund an anti-cancer virus.

The campaign is hoping to raise US$1,000,000 to fund the development of potential treatment for neuroendocrine tumours, or NET - the same cancer that killed Steve Jobs.

The potential therapy, a cancer-busting virus, is currently sitting in a freezer in Sweden – but it can’t be tested for lack of just £2million.

Without the money, the research will cease and the virus will be thrown away, placing in jeopardy a therapy that could significantly extend the lives of thousands of NET cancer sufferers.

Big business won’t stump up the £2million needed to fund the first stage of clinical trials, because there is no money to be made. The Swedish research team, led by Prof Magnus Essand from Uppsala University, were so keen to collaborate and share the findings they published the research.

But now it is out in the public domain it can’t be protected by the patent that would have enabled business backers to make a profit.

We want to raise enough money to enable Prof Essand and his team to conduct clinical trials on their groundbreaking cancer eating virus. £1 million will enable him to do it - £2 million will enable him to do it really well.

Check out the campaign here.

  1. Camera: Nikon D80
  2. Aperture: f/10
  3. Exposure: 1/160th
  4. Focal Length: 50mm

ikenbot:

Can a New Camera Unravel the Nature of Dark Energy?

The new camera is mounted on the Blanco 4-meter telescope at the National Science Foundation’s Cerro Tolollo InterAmerican Observatory (CTIO) in Chile.

Image: The 570 megapixel Dark Energy Camera. Credit: Fermilab

It is the widest field optical imager in astronomy today, and is capable of detecting light from over 100,000 galaxies up to 8 billion light years away. The instrument is composed of an array of 62 charged-coupled devices, and new technology will allow scientists from around the world to investigate the studies of asteroids in our solar system to the understanding of the origins and the fate of the Universe.

It is expected that in just over five years, astronomers will be able to create detailed color images of one-eighth of the sky, to discover and measure 300 million galaxies, 100,000 galaxy clusters and 4,000 supernovae.

“The Dark Energy Camera will solve the mystery of dark energy in a systematic manner,” said Andrea Kunder of CTIO in a podcast on 365 Days of Astronomy. “The idea is to observe four different probes of dark energy. You can’t see dark energy so there are four different probes of dark energy that DECam will be observing. First, DECam will observe type Ia supernova and baryon acoustic oscillations and this will be to constrain the expansion of the universe. And then galaxy clusters and weak lensing will also be observed to measure both the expansion of the universe and the growth of large scale structures. Then we can compare the results from these first two probes and the last two probes and this can reveal our understanding of gravity and intercomparisons of the results will provide cross checks and bolster confidence in the findings.”

(Source: afro-dominicano)

sciencesoup:

Wandering Stars
To ancient astronomers, the stars seemed fixed, moving across the sky during the night but always in fixed constellations—except for five bright points that appeared to wander among the stars. In the geocentric model of the solar system, where everything orbits the Earth, the paths of these five seemed strange, with several even backtracking and looping around in a retrograde motion. Today, we know that our solar system is heliocentric and all planets orbit the sun, so the retrograde motions are only perspective issues, but the ancient names for the planets remain. The Greeks called them ‘planets’, meaning wanderers, and the five were originally named after Roman deities: Mercury, messenger of the gods, Venus, the goddess of love and beauty, Mars, the god of war, Jupiter, king of the gods, and Saturn, father of Jupiter and god of agriculture.
(Image Credit: NASA)
sciencesoup:

Wandering Stars
To ancient astronomers, the stars seemed fixed, moving across the sky during the night but always in fixed constellations—except for five bright points that appeared to wander among the stars. In the geocentric model of the solar system, where everything orbits the Earth, the paths of these five seemed strange, with several even backtracking and looping around in a retrograde motion. Today, we know that our solar system is heliocentric and all planets orbit the sun, so the retrograde motions are only perspective issues, but the ancient names for the planets remain. The Greeks called them ‘planets’, meaning wanderers, and the five were originally named after Roman deities: Mercury, messenger of the gods, Venus, the goddess of love and beauty, Mars, the god of war, Jupiter, king of the gods, and Saturn, father of Jupiter and god of agriculture.
(Image Credit: NASA)
sciencesoup:

Wandering Stars
To ancient astronomers, the stars seemed fixed, moving across the sky during the night but always in fixed constellations—except for five bright points that appeared to wander among the stars. In the geocentric model of the solar system, where everything orbits the Earth, the paths of these five seemed strange, with several even backtracking and looping around in a retrograde motion. Today, we know that our solar system is heliocentric and all planets orbit the sun, so the retrograde motions are only perspective issues, but the ancient names for the planets remain. The Greeks called them ‘planets’, meaning wanderers, and the five were originally named after Roman deities: Mercury, messenger of the gods, Venus, the goddess of love and beauty, Mars, the god of war, Jupiter, king of the gods, and Saturn, father of Jupiter and god of agriculture.
(Image Credit: NASA)
sciencesoup:

Wandering Stars
To ancient astronomers, the stars seemed fixed, moving across the sky during the night but always in fixed constellations—except for five bright points that appeared to wander among the stars. In the geocentric model of the solar system, where everything orbits the Earth, the paths of these five seemed strange, with several even backtracking and looping around in a retrograde motion. Today, we know that our solar system is heliocentric and all planets orbit the sun, so the retrograde motions are only perspective issues, but the ancient names for the planets remain. The Greeks called them ‘planets’, meaning wanderers, and the five were originally named after Roman deities: Mercury, messenger of the gods, Venus, the goddess of love and beauty, Mars, the god of war, Jupiter, king of the gods, and Saturn, father of Jupiter and god of agriculture.
(Image Credit: NASA)
sciencesoup:

Wandering Stars
To ancient astronomers, the stars seemed fixed, moving across the sky during the night but always in fixed constellations—except for five bright points that appeared to wander among the stars. In the geocentric model of the solar system, where everything orbits the Earth, the paths of these five seemed strange, with several even backtracking and looping around in a retrograde motion. Today, we know that our solar system is heliocentric and all planets orbit the sun, so the retrograde motions are only perspective issues, but the ancient names for the planets remain. The Greeks called them ‘planets’, meaning wanderers, and the five were originally named after Roman deities: Mercury, messenger of the gods, Venus, the goddess of love and beauty, Mars, the god of war, Jupiter, king of the gods, and Saturn, father of Jupiter and god of agriculture.
(Image Credit: NASA)
sciencesoup:

Wandering Stars
To ancient astronomers, the stars seemed fixed, moving across the sky during the night but always in fixed constellations—except for five bright points that appeared to wander among the stars. In the geocentric model of the solar system, where everything orbits the Earth, the paths of these five seemed strange, with several even backtracking and looping around in a retrograde motion. Today, we know that our solar system is heliocentric and all planets orbit the sun, so the retrograde motions are only perspective issues, but the ancient names for the planets remain. The Greeks called them ‘planets’, meaning wanderers, and the five were originally named after Roman deities: Mercury, messenger of the gods, Venus, the goddess of love and beauty, Mars, the god of war, Jupiter, king of the gods, and Saturn, father of Jupiter and god of agriculture.
(Image Credit: NASA)
sciencesoup:

Wandering Stars
To ancient astronomers, the stars seemed fixed, moving across the sky during the night but always in fixed constellations—except for five bright points that appeared to wander among the stars. In the geocentric model of the solar system, where everything orbits the Earth, the paths of these five seemed strange, with several even backtracking and looping around in a retrograde motion. Today, we know that our solar system is heliocentric and all planets orbit the sun, so the retrograde motions are only perspective issues, but the ancient names for the planets remain. The Greeks called them ‘planets’, meaning wanderers, and the five were originally named after Roman deities: Mercury, messenger of the gods, Venus, the goddess of love and beauty, Mars, the god of war, Jupiter, king of the gods, and Saturn, father of Jupiter and god of agriculture.
(Image Credit: NASA)

sciencesoup:

Wandering Stars

To ancient astronomers, the stars seemed fixed, moving across the sky during the night but always in fixed constellations—except for five bright points that appeared to wander among the stars. In the geocentric model of the solar system, where everything orbits the Earth, the paths of these five seemed strange, with several even backtracking and looping around in a retrograde motion. Today, we know that our solar system is heliocentric and all planets orbit the sun, so the retrograde motions are only perspective issues, but the ancient names for the planets remain. The Greeks called them ‘planets’, meaning wanderers, and the five were originally named after Roman deities: Mercury, messenger of the gods, Venus, the goddess of love and beauty, Mars, the god of war, Jupiter, king of the gods, and Saturn, father of Jupiter and god of agriculture.

(Image Credit: NASA)